Graphic Design uses layout, text, images (includes moving images nowadays) to communicate an idea.
Gestalt is a psychology term which means “unified whole” These theories attempt to describe how people tend to organize visual elements into groups or unified wholes when certain principles are applied.
These principles are:
Similarity occurs when objects look similar to one another. People often perceive them as a group or pattern
Continuation occurs when the eye is compelled to move through one object and continue to another object.
Closure occurs when an object is incomplete or space is not completely enclosed. If enough of the shape is indicated, people perceive the whole by filling in the missing information.
Proximity occurs when elements are placed close together. They tend to be perceived as a group.
Figure and Ground
The eye differentiates an object from its surrounding area. a form, silhouette, or shape is naturally perceived as a figure (object), while the surrounding area is perceived as ground (background).
Balancing figure and ground can make the perceived image more clear. Using unusual figure/ground relationships can add interest and subtlety to an image.
Elements of design:
Strokes show motion and connect two points.
Vertical lines: are straight up and down and perpendicular to horizontal lines
Horizontal lines: are straight up and down and perpendicular to vertical lines
Diagonal lines: are lines that straight in any direction except vertical or horizontal
Zigzag lines: are a series of diagonal lines joined end to end
Curved lines: are lines that bend in any amount of degree; they may be gently wavy to tightly wound spirals
Some ways Artists use line
To outline; a starting place for many drawings or paintings
To suggest moods or emotion; lines can appear calm, nervous, angry, etc.
To lead the viewer’s eye through a work of art
To create lightness or darkness; lines placed close together appear darker than those placed further from each other
To create texture; roughness or smoothness
Shows an object in a space, the mass or positive space it occupies. The term usually used when describing 3-d objects
What is between objects, also known as negative/positive space.
The feel, real or connotated on an object or its surface
The area enclosed when both sides of a line meet. Shapes can be geometric or organic.
Interpretations of colour can have connotations connected to it that can create an emotion or display a message. May be complimentary, analogous, primary, secondary, tertiary, or part of the colour wheel
The lightness or darkness of an object or colour. Often used with drawings.
Principles of Design
When one area in a work of art stands out more than another. The part that catches your attention first and decides what is most important
The motion created often uses the principle of rhythm to achieve this. Slow Exposure/Long Exposure
The feeling of wholeness or the parts belonging together
The repetition of lines, shapes, or colours to create a feeling of movement
A difference created when elements are placed next to each other in a work of art creates an emphasis on certain objects which stand out/contrast against the rest of the piece.
The use of different lines, shapes, and colours in a piece of work
Topology – the study of geometrical properties and spatial relations unaffected by the continuous change of shape or size of figures.