Wireframing is basically creating the skeleton of a website or app and seeing how everything will work, what buttons will lead to which pages and what the pages look like.
The wireframe I’m using is a Weather app
Wireframing is basically creating the skeleton of a website or app and seeing how everything will work, what buttons will lead to which pages and what the pages look like.
The wireframe I’m using is a Weather app
UI/UX = User Interface/User Experience
include negative space (the grid)
use a grid system
magazines usually uses 10.4 text size
How to create text column
Select text tool
Then select this tool
And then type in the number of columns you want
App Design has changed over the years as technology has improved, particularly since the creation of smartphone-based computing, allowing people to travel and go on these apps as it’s contained in small handheld devices nowadays.
An App is the shortened version of an application, apps are usually downloaded by a user to a mobile device. Apps can have a variety of uses, from instant messaging apps, such as Facebook Messenger and Twitter to blogging and image searching apps, such as Tumblr and Pinterest to Game and entertainment apps.
Apps use will decide how it’s designed, for example, an instant messaging app will usually be white with a contrasting color used on the logo and important pieces of text, such as Facebook’s use of white against a blue colour, or Pinterest using white against a bold red colour.
Apps will usually have very complex and psychological based reasons for why they design things in certain ways, for example the logo or name of the company/product will be in the top left corner most of the time if it’s a app from the western part of the world because that’s how people in the west read, another example is that a lot of apps will use some variation of blue in its design, this is because blue is a psychologically calming colour which reminds us of the sky and is also the most popular colour in the world apparently.
However design choices can also be because of simple and straightforward reasons, for example, Mark Zuckerberg made Facebook’s main colour blue because he has red-green colour blindness and blue was the richest colour he could see. A lot of design choices can also be explained by a form of mob mentality, by which I mean, when companies see another competing product, in this situation an app, succeed, they will research to see what made it so popular and steal those ideas and use them in their own product to improve their popularity too, this can range from colour choice to the apps structure and design to even how the logo looks.
The history of mobile apps is a fairly difficult one to pin down because for as long as phones have been being created, companies have been trying to add applications (or apps) to the phone to make it more attractive to the audience.
In 1983 The Motorola DynaTAC 8000X, or “The Brick” as we’ve come to call it was the first phone to be made commercially available. This phone had very basic applications that allowed for simple contacts built into its operating system.
The first generation of mobile phones was built in-house so as to keep their products uses a secret to competition, because of this secrecy only a select few developers were allowed to design and develop apps, meaning not many new influences or minds could have a go at designing new apps.
During this time the first form of an app made for gaming was created, Nokia became well known for having put the 1970s game ‘Snake’ onto the earliest versions of their phone, this was met with extreme success, and as a result, others were quick to follow, adding games like Pong, Tetris, and Tic-Tac-Toe. As the idea of playing video games rose in popularity the way people viewed phones changed, and their use as only a communication device began to shift, as the demand grew more phones began to be manufactured leading to prices being lower by the competing companies, this gave way to the improvement of the batteries life and longevity, the reception areas grew bigger and bigger, and more people began carrying these devices around with them and it became clear that phones weren’t just a novelty of the time period that would soon be replaced by the next big thing, phones were here to stay.
As customers demand for more different types of apps companies realized they didn’t have the resources or motivation to create every app the audience wished for and that the developers needed some way to provide a way to activate entertainment and information services without allowing direct access to the handset as phones couldn’t handle that at the time. This made way for the combining of the internet and phones.
The Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) standard was developed to address these problems, WAP was a lesser version of HTTP, the basic protocol of the Internet, browsers based in the WAP were designed to run within the memory and bandwidth constraints of the phone so as to not overwhelm the phone or bandwidth, to do this, the internet pages were much simpler in design than their
The Wireless Application Protocol (WAP) standard was developed to address these problems, WAP was a lesser version of HTTP, the basic protocol of the Internet, browsers based in the WAP were designed to run within the memory and bandwidth constraints of the phone so as to not overwhelm the phone or bandwidth, to do this, the internet pages were much simpler in design than their computer-based counterparts. As time passed, however, people began to find WAP lacking, it was slow
As time passed, however, people began to find WAP lacking, it was slow and typing out the exact URL to reach a page was long and frustrating, as well as this, most WAP sites were only one version and did not account for individual phone specification, meaning each user had the same mediocre experience as developers couldn’t personalize for each user’s requirements and experience.Memory was getting cheaper; batteries were getting better, and phones were beginning to run compact versions of common operating systems like Linux and Windows.
Memory was getting cheaper; batteries were getting better, and phones were beginning to run compact versions of common operating systems like Linux and Windows.This in turn
This, in turn, lead to the rise of Proprietary Mobile Platforms, proprietary is often meant as a description of a software that is not open source or freely licensed and is instead, owned by a company privately. A variety of different proprietary platforms emerged and developers creating applications for them. An example of this was the Palm OS (now Garnet OS) and RIM Blackberry OS, this was quickly followed by Sun Microsystems turning Java into Java Micro Edition for handheld devices. And then Nokia, Sony Ericsson, and Samsung developed Symbian OS, The Apple iPhone iOS was then created in 2007, then in 2008 Google’s Android arrived on the scene.After this these
After this these separate companies began improving their own individual platforms and adding more apps to their phones to appeal to their audience and will probably continue to do so until something comes along and pushes phones out of popularity altogether. Two of the most famous paces to get apps are now Itunes, Google Apps and as well as these each phone usually has its own portal to allow users to download apps through the company.
As mentioned in the history of apps there was a time when companies held onto their secrets leading to only a few developers being able to create apps, however this has changed nowadays, companies will still hold onto their secrets but with the creation of the internet, where you can find information on almost anything if you dig far enough, as well as technology allowing us to be more connected to companies in a way we weren’t before via Twitter and Facebook, people can find all the information they need to make their own apps, as well as their being cheaper, faster resources such as Adobe Flash, companies also realized that if they wished to keep appealing to audience they needed to change tactics and have more up and coming developers to add to their teams to come up with new and innovative ideas.
In terms of all Interactive Media, there has been an obvious shift as a result of technological advancements and the creation of the internet and phones and computers. For example, CDs are no longer being used as much and are starting to be seen as vintage in the same way people think of Vinyls as, CDs have been replaced with music available on music sharing sites such as Itunes and Spotify, and to a lesser extent SoundCloud, though this is more for small-time independent music creators to upload their work for free and have it heard by people all over the world, an impressive feat that wouldn’t have been available in the early 2000s.
Another large piece of Interactive Media that’s being pushed out is DVDs, which are being slowly replaced by streaming channels on TVs, handheld devices, and computers such as Netflix, Amazon Prime and other means of watching films, such as pirating films and uploading it to the internet, usually this is put onto Youtube but can also be put into a Google Drive folder and have the link given out for others to watch and download.
DVD players and VHS players are especially becoming obsolete because DVDs can be watched on computers now, if the film can’t be found online or easily accessed through a streaming channel and VHS players were kicked out by DVDs in the first place, with a lot of films originally made on VHS being imported into DVDs.
Well Designed Apps
Pinterest’s app design is very similar to the desktop version, this is a good idea as it creates a very obvious connection between the two. The app uses the same colours as its computer counterpart and also follows the same design pattern as the computer, with a red search bar at the top with the ability to endlessly scroll over large pictures, this endless scrolling is a smart design idea as endlessly scrolling through pictures makes people curious of the next pictures and continue scrolling.
The design is clear with most of the screen being white, highlighted parts are a dark red. Not only is this a good amount of contrast, it also keeps in line with the brand colours Pinterest has.
3 Badly designed apps/
The Tumblr app is fairly infamous for not being particularly good, it’s missing numerous key elements from its computer browser-based counterpart, such as adding images to text posts which lead to the users experience being stifled when using the phone version in comparison to the computer version.
Another big problem is that the website’s design seems to break continuously, by which I mean how when scrolling down the page images will go off its area and could either A: Be placed on the sidelines, off of the section images should be, or B: Overlap other peoples posts, making it harder to see and, subsequently, worsening the usability of the app as people can’t see other posts. The other big problem that ruins usability and control over the app is that posts can begin repeating themselves os users can’t see anything else, making the interactivity hard, especially since one of the worst ways the app can break is that the screen goes white and you have to refresh the page continuously, losing the place you were at.
Snapchat is a popular app which I personally believe has a fairly terrible design, when you open the app there is no obvious way to open the menu, so the user will begin trying to find it and will probably swipe around to try and find the menu, this can lead to the user swiping down and, as a result being taken to Snapchat’s sponsored stores before the menu button, giving the impression through their design choices and how they designed certain things to be more easily accessible than others that they care more about their sponsored stories that they get paid to have people see than giving users the ability to see the menu, a basic function that, when it’s not clear to the user, shows a lack of usability.
Snapchat also doesn’t seem to have the best understanding of designing for a purpose, it doesn’t make good use of its negative space and will put buttons and symbols which could be put under a drop down menu/window just on the screen constantly, making the screen feel cluttered and not being very visually appealing from a basic perspective.
An app for forecasting the weather called WeatherBug is extremely ugly design-wise, the entire page is different shade of blue, while I did mention earlier many apps use blue it is sparingly and used as a contrast against a white, WeatherBug has a light blue as the main colour with dark blue for the icons
Before I give my treatment I feel I should give some background information about what I chose and why.
Narrative Theory and Character Archetypes
Narratives are the story that a piece of media, in this case, a video game, will follow, this can be in the form of both visual and audible storytelling methods, for example, in a video game you could progress the narrative by having a cutscene in which the main character first comes into contact with the main antagonist, this would visually convey to the player that the storyline is now following the main character defeating the antagonist. For audio, in a video game you can have a conversation between characters or even have music or sound effects convey how the narrative is progressing, for example, if in a video game the music went from a happy, simple tune, to a more brooding and chaotic melody, the player would know there was a shift in atmosphere, which would subsequently mean that a new part of the narrative is taking place.
There are four hree main theories that discuss the how a narrative can be fit into a certain structure.
The Ancient Greek philosopher Aristotle came up with the theory that a narrative can be structured into three sections, the beginning, the middle and the end, Aristotle’s theory was based on the idea that if you were to rearrange or remove the beginning, middle and end of a narrative that it shouldn’t make sense, if it did then the story isn’t “unified” and it has unnecessary parts that aren’t critical to a story. He believed that every part of a narrative should result directly from the actions of the previous part to make it good and that every part of a story should be a necessary part of the story.
In a video game, you can get away with straying from the main story, and this is quite a common occurrence in video games where the developers wish to pad out the main plotline, effectively making the game longer and more worth a higher price, by adding side quests, much to the player’s exasperation. A more effective way to make a game longer which game companies will also do is to add side stories that aren’t as integral to the story as the main plotline but are still long stories cut off from the main story, so if the player got bored of the main plot, or simply wished to do something else in the game’s world, they can play a separate story and do something else, this idea can also make the game seem less empty and the game’s world more alive to the player, two important aspects to immerse a player into the game and give them a fulfilling experience while playing the game.
Another narrative theory is from Tzvetan Todorov, another philosopher who believed in the idea of a narrative structure breaking and then fixing of an equilibrium, an equilibrium is another word for when there is balance and, in terms of media narratives, means when everything in the world is at peace.
There are five stages to Todorov’s Equilibrium theory:
1: A state of equilibrium is in place
2: Something disrupts this equilibrium (usually a character or action)
3: The main protagonist (and player) realize the equilibrium is disrupted
4: Main protagonist (and player) attempt to fix equilibrium
5: Equilibrium is restored, however, because events happened over the course of the narrative, usually to do with character growth/change, possible deaths and changes of tone, the equilibrium is different to the first one, making it a new equilibrium, depending on the genre this equilibrium can be a better or worse one.
The new equilibrium that happens at the end of a narrative can leave someone playing a video game with a warm, happy feeling, a sad and empty feeling, an angry feeling, a surprised/scared feeling or, if the writer is talented enough, and the narrative can fit it, a mixture of these feelings. This depends on the genre of the and what the writers were trying to achieve at the end of the game, most children’s games will end on a very happy note, with maybe a slightly bittersweetness to it, adult games are more likely to have an entirely bittersweet ending or even a confusing, frustrating one.
Vladimir Propp studied a multitude of Russian fairytales and folktales before coming to the conclusion that all narratives meet certain requirements and have a common structure. He theorized that narratives are shaped and directed by certain character types and that there are 31 possible stages or an event in any narrative, though these may not all appear in the same story.
Propp believed that there are 7 roles which any character may fall into in a story, these are:
Villain – The person who will battle and go against the hero.
Donor – Prepares/provides the hero with an item of some sort, this is usually magical.
Helper – Aids, rescues or transforms the hero.
Princess – A sought-after person who exists as a reward for the hero once they defeat the villain.
Dispatcher – Sends the hero off on their journey/quest.
Hero – Departs on a quest, defeats the villain, interacts with the donor in some way and then gets a happy ending (usually marrying the princess).
False Hero – Claims to be the hero, often acts like the hero and is following the same quest as the real hero.
Propps 31 narratives stages
Propp split his 31 possible up into sections of a story, these were:
Section 1: Introduction
Stage 1 – 7 are mostly about introducing a world and its main characters and narrative
Section 2: The Body of the story
Stage 8 – 11 mostly entail how the main narrative begins and also includes when the hero first begins their quest
7. Villainy and lack: The need is identified~
8. Mediation: Hero discovers the lack
9. Counteraction: Hero chooses positive action
10. Departure: Hero leave on mission
Section 3: The Donor Sequence
Stage 12 – 19 the hero goes in search of a method for the solution to be reached, gaining the magical agent from the Donor. Note that this in itself may be a complete story.
12. Testing: Hero is challenged to prove heroic qualities
13. Reaction: Hero responds to test
14. Acquisition: Hero gains magical item
15. Guidance: Hero reaches destination
16. Struggle: Hero and villain do battle
17. Branding: Hero is branded
18. Victory: Villain is defeated
19. Resolution: Initial misfortune or lack is resolved
Section 4: The Hero’s return
Stage 20 – 31 This is the final (and sometimes optional) phase of the storyline, the hero returns home, hopefully uneventfully and to a hero’s welcome, although this may not always be the case.
20. Return: Hero sets out for home
21. Pursuit: Hero is chased
22. Rescue: pursuit ends
23. Arrival: Hero arrives unrecognized
24. Claim: False hero makes unfounded claims
25. Task: Difficult task proposed to the hero
26. Solution: Task is resolved
27. Recognition: Hero is recognised
28. Exposure: False hero is exposed
29. Transfiguration: Hero is given a new appearance
30. Punishment: Villain is punished
31. Wedding: Hero marries and ascends the throne
Even nowadays plenty of these stages are still used and I’ll probably be using a fair few for my games narrative.
Another man who studied hundreds of stories from around the world before comng to his conclusion about narrative structures was Claude Levi Strauss. His theory is that we make sense of the world around us, including the people and situations by creating and using binary opposites everywhere. Levi Strauss found that all narratives are written around the idea of these binary opposites going against each others.
The biggest example of binary opposites is the tried and true formula of good vs evil, other binary opposites that may be seen in narratives are:
Boy vs Girl
Man vs Nature
Peace vs War
Young vs Old
Another person who took a stab at narrative theories was Joseph Campbell who believed that, regardless of time period, country of origin and the culture that a story came from, it always had similar character and setting archetypes, very similar to Propps idea of specific character roles that must be filled out, Campbell also came up with the ‘Hero’s Journey’ monomyth, which basically details the stages of a hero’s journey that happens in a narrative, Campbell’s original monomyth was about 17 stages long but as time went by numerous other people came to readjust and simplify it.
|Act||Campbell (1949)||David Adams Leeming (1981)||Phil Cousineau (1990)||Christopher Vogler (2007)|
|1: Departure||1. The Call to Adventure
2. Refusal of the Call
4. Crossing the Threshold
5. Belly of the Whale
|1. Miraculous Conception and Birth
2. Initiation of the Hero-Child
3. Withdrawal from Family or Community for Meditation and Preparation
|1. The Call to Adventure
|1. The Ordinary world
2. The call to Adventure
3. Refusal of the Call
4. Meeting the Mentor
5. Crossing the Thershold to the Special World
|2: Initiation||6. The Road of Trails
7. The Meeting with the Goddess
8. Woman as Temptress
9. Atonement with the Father
11. The Ultimate Boon
|4. Trail and Quest
6. Descent into the underworld
|2. The road of Trails
3. The Vision Quest
4. The Meeting with the Goddess
5. The Boon
|6. Tests, Allies and Enemies
7. Approach to the Innermost Cave
8. The Ordeal
|3: Return||12. Refusal of the Return
13. The Magic Flight
14. Rescue from Without
15. The Crossing of the Return Threshold
16. Master of Two Worlds
17. Freedom to Live
|7. Resurrecton and Rebirth
8. Ascension, Apotheosis, and Atonement
|10. The Magic Flight
11. The Return Threshold
12. The Master of Two Worlds
|10. The Road Back
11. The Resurrection
12. Return with the Elixir
Working Title – What is the name of your project
The working title for my game is Gadget and the Flying Machines
Genre – Is your project going to be a childrens/horror/fantasy/mystery/etc game?
My game’s genre will be a fantasy, mystery and adventure game
Duration – How long is your project going to be
The level I will design will be about 20 minutes at most to play in
Target Audience – What is your main demographic (15 – 35 year old Male / Females) identify the psychographics and social economics with referenced research.
My target audience will be 10 – 30 year old Men and Women
I say this becuase many successful games that have the same premise or game structure try to appeal to this group (Such as Owl Boy, Shovel Knight and Stardew Valley), it also seems like the best choice for the story I’m going with as the story will be very light hearted.
Outline – A detailed paragraph that engage the reader with the beginning, middle and end of your story; Key incidents leading to the climax. Explain the topic (synopsis)
The narrative idea my game will follow is Todorovs Equilibrium theory as well as Levi Strauss Binary Opposites and will also probably include Propps character types.
The basic narrative is that a woman named Gadget wants to be a flyer but is stuck as an engineer, she enter a compeition that claims to give the winner who beats all 9 rivals money and fame as the best flying machine driver ever.
As she beats the rivals a vocie later revealed to be a woman named Lucretia reveals that the competition was made to reactivate her arch enemies power stations that are hdden in the arenas.
Gadget believes it to be the competitoon officiator but it is revealed that it was Begining of my game’s storyA young engineer called Jackie (nicknamed Gadget) wishes obe a flying machine pilot. She lives in a world in the sky which has floating islands, both man made and naturally occouring and is inhabited of creatures of all shapes and sizes. She enters a competition in which she must travel across her world to face a certain number of rivals (about 7 to 9). If she beats all the rivals she’ll be given 300,000 gold pieces in winning money as well as fame, enough to patch up her slow flying machine and becoming a pilot.
The night before the competition starts she has a dream where an older womans voice speaks to her and tells her that the arenas she’ll fight her rivals in are on top of her old domains that have been corrupted and, if Gadget would be so kind, asked if Gadget could purify them so that the older woman’s connection to that part of the world can be rekindeled and the woman can kick the creatures of the Below out, she explains that they were sent by her enemy to slumber while he set up his grand plan of world domination, Gadget is extremely scared by this revelation but is quickly calmed by the woman who says that once Gadget has purified the temple she can stop the plan in its tracks, all Gadget would have to do would be to defeat her rival and then take the Moon Stone that they’ll find on them to a pedestal in a room inside that arena which is filled with colourful windows and simply place the stone on the pedestal, this stone will reopen the gateway for her to reach the temple and purify it. Gadget is confused by why and how her rivals would have the stones but before the woman can answer Gadget wakes up.
So Gadget goes off to the place where her competition is to begin and meets the Competiton Officiator and his assistant who greet her and explain how the competition will work and who she’ll be up against first. Gadget begins their journey to defeat the first rival, meeting all kinds of strange people in tthe section of the world that her rivals arena is in, after the first battle is won Gadget sees the moon stone and follows the womans instructions once she does so the arena is replaced by a beautiful temple and she hears the womans voice again, who congratulates her on her success and thanks her for purify the temple, she also gives a bit more info about her enemy and why they did what they did, she tries again to ask why her rival had a moon stone but is interuppted by the officiator and assistant arriving to congratulate Gadget and move her onto the next stage.
The rest of the rivals follow this pattern with the woman being able to reveal snippets of info before being interrupted by the officiator and having to disappear quickly, the officiator becomes more and more suspicous becuase of the way he acts and the fact he interrupts whenever the older woman tries to reveal stuff.
Gadget Reaches the half way point and after purifying the half way temple the woman apologizers and knock her out, Gadget wakes up in a strange place and sees an older woman wearing a gown that looks like it’s made of starlight, the woman reveals herself to being the voice Gadget’s heard throughout her adventure.
The woman, named Madame Lucretia explains she wanted to talk to Gadget without interupption and explains that the reason the rivals have the moonstones and why the competition even exists is to bring power back to her arch enemy.
Gadget continues the competition and believes the villain to be the Officiator but at the last competition its revealed the officiators assitant was the bad guy, Lady Cordelia, undercover.
Gadget and Lucretia beat her up with help from any rivals that the player has become friends with over the game and win.
Character Breakdown –
Jackie “Gadget” Ryans
Role in Story: Main Protagonist who you play as.
Personality: Enthusiastic, Hard Working, Friendly, Slightly hot headed, Kind, Ambitious, Curious and Adventurous
Backstory: Gadget is the main protagonist of my game, she has big dreams of becoming the greatest Air Pilot that the Upside has ever seen but is stuck in her job as a flying machine engineer.
Likes: Flying, Engineering, Kindness.
Dislikes: Evil, Fighting, Not being able to fly.
Alice “Ally” Cogscmidt
Role in Story: One of Gadgets rivals in the trials, not the main antagonist but does pose as a threat to protagonist.
Personality: Determined, Sensitive, Easily angered by mean people, Intelligent, Snide, Slightly arrogant.
Backstory: A young girl from the floating city of Ironcliff, she acts as a rival to Gadget but it should be noted that she isn’t evil, none of the rivals are completely evil. She is a child genius and is amazing at enginerring, more specifically robotics, leading to her creating “Tulip”, a large, terrifying robot with four spindely metal legs and the vague apperance of a bunny, because Ally adores bunny rabbits.
Likes: Tulip, Bunny rabbits (especially her toy one), Sweets, Tinkering with robots, Beating her rivals into the ground, Adults who don’t speak down to her because she’s young.
Dislikes: Brocoli, People who are mean to Tulip, Adults who are patronizing towards her, Losing, Being told to go to bed when working on important robot designs.
Role in story: One of Gadgets Rivals in the trials
Personality: Extremely high self esteem, Arrogant, Hard Working, Dramatic, Bit of a snob, Generous
Backstory: A woman from the high end city of the Felicity Plains, She is an idol and model with a love of dramatic flair, she joined the trails when she became bored of her job as an idol/model and wanted to try something new, and with wealth and fame she quickly rose to glory. No one knows her real name anymore, just her idol name. She’s fairly arrogant and snobbish but also cares for others, wanting them to have as high self esteem as she does and promotes self love, even to her rivals.
Likes: People who are hard working, Beautiful things, Others having confidence in themselves, Dramatics, Putting on a big show.
Dislikes: People who aren’t willing to put in hard work to get the results they want, Low self-esteem, Ungenerous attitude, Boringness
Gender: Unknown (prefers he/him pronouns though)
Role in sTORY: rIVAL
Personality: Kind, Naive, Kind of Stupid, Guliibal, good humoured.
Backstory: A creature from the Aqua Desert. Kind of is just there.
Age: 10,000 (in human years 54)
Role in Story: Gadget’s helpers and guide
Personality: Motherly, Sympathetic, Strict, Sarcastic.
Bakcstory: A literal ominpresent goddess of the world. All knowing
Role in story: The creator/officiator of the compeititon
Perosnality: Annoyeing jerk
Role in story: Assitant to officiator, not very important
Role in story: main antagonist.
Rationale – I chose this idea becuase it was a fun idea which is inspired by many retro games that I and others enjoy.
Headroom – Don’t Leave too much or too little room above peoples head
Looking Space – Allow space to see what actor is looking at
Eye-Line – Be aware of peoples height/the mood that your camera angle can make
Rule of thirds – Screen can be split into 3 by 3 squares
Crossing the Line –
45 Degree Rule – Switching from one angle to the next in each shot should be at least 45 degrees
The 18 degrees rule- The onscreen spatial relationship between a character and another character or object within a scene
A camera track is what moves a camera physically to a different angle in the same scene
Extreme Close Up
Close Up Shot
Mid Long Shot
Final Fantasy 1
Legend of Zelda Minish Cap
Super Mario World