Assignment 1: Final Poster Designs

Final Poster Design


As the title suggests, this is the final poster design that I used as my main poster, this is because I feel this is overall the best design I created, it has the needed title, date and logo on, as well as having what I see as the best composition.


As shown above, my final poster follow the golden spiral well, with the date being almost at the centre of the spiral and the title following the end of the line perfectly, this means that the viewers natural line of sight will, when following the golden spiral, will go from the title, which is the most important part of the information, around the illustration, to the date, the second most important piece of information.


When applying the rule of thirds composition to the poster, you can see how the date still falls into one of the intersections which, according to the rule of thirds composition means that the viewers line of sight will naturally be drawn to it, however, the title falls just under one of the intersections, this is a shame but I think it’s still close enough that the viewer will notice it anyway as a result of the use of colours and contrast against what’s actually on the intersection, which is the dark blue illustration.

The Process
 Step 1: Creating the clock
The first part of creating the poster was creating the clock, which would be the centre of attention, this was done by firstly creating simple circles with ellipse tool, afterwards I created the clocks hands and time markers by using the pen and curvature tool to shape and move them.

Step 2: The blue buildingsscreen-shot-2016-12-07-at-13-02-46After the main clock face was created I went on to the buildings that would surround the clock face, many of them were simply using the rectangle shape tool on illustrator, however, the Gerkin, the London eye and the Globe Theater had to be done with the pen and curvature tool, both the Gerking and the Globe Theater then had details added to their insides using white lines made with the line segment tool, this was so that a viewer could identify the buildings much easier.

Step 3: Title, Date and Logo
Once the illustrations were done it was time to add the title, date and logo, I went for contrasting colours so that the information from the title date and logo the viewers had to see would stand out against the surrounding colours. I used a font type called Bebas Neue which i felt suited the poster perfectly because of how, as a result of it being sans serif, the words don’t have too much of a formal air to it but the font still looks professional enough for the festival being advertised is still respectable.

Step 4: Possible change
While finishing off the poster, I changed the colour of the clock face to a warmer yellow to see if it would look better, however, while the colour looks nice against the pink text, when put next to the blue of the buildings it is quite underwhelming to look at and the blue of the illustrations takes the viewers attention away from the clock, which, given that the date is on the clock, not the buildings, isn’t ideal, so I kept the clock the same colour yellow it had been during the process.

Another change was the composition of the text and logo, which, as can be seen in some of the earlier screenshots has the date going clockwise while the title went counter-clockwise.

The old version looked like this:


While the new version looks like this:

Layers for Poster

The layers and paths for this poster were created on Illustrator, which is why the layer tab looks as it does above, as well as the many paths.

Secondary Poster Design

This design was actually created before my final design, which used this poster as it’s template, I moved away from this design as a result of not being happy with how the inspiration took away from the quality; by this I mean how as a result of having the poster be inspired by the Bauhaus art movement, which had a large feature of their art be bold lines, which, when applied to this poster would overlap with the title and make it hard to see, this issue was rectified by deleting the parts of the line that overlapped with the title but I still prefer the main poster design to this one. As mentioned this poster was inspired by the Bauhaus movement, I chose this specific movement because of it’s influence and connection to architecture, especially in the 1900s.

The Process
This design followed a lot of the same design processes as my main one, and uses the same text font, however, this design used the line tool on Photoshop to create the Bauhaus themed background as well as the squares of colour and places the logo, title and date n different places.


There was a lot of layers with different shapes on them as a result of this section of the poster being done with Photoshop.

When using the golden spiral the date is still in the centre, however, the rest of the poster doesn’t really follow the spiral which means the title and logo may be seen much later than I anticipated.

Third Poster Design

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My third design was a completely different attempt at posters, the only similarity is the colour scheme which was used in all three posters, however, this design had the additional red on it, this is because this poster needed more than three colours, besides white and black, to put emphasis on certain parts of the poster.

The abstract shapes on the sides work as leading lines to the centre where the words are, as well as the multicoloured big ben which I created, this works as another leading line to the logo at the bottom of the page.

By having the main colour of Big Ben be a bright pink that contrasts against the yellow of the clock I can draw more attention to the centre of the Big Ben illustration. I also had everything at a slant so as to make the poster appear more visually interesting in comparison to just having it as a straight line.


Assignment 1: Evaluation

I created my designs through looking at the many pieces of architecture that exist in London, I kept it specifically to London as a result of it being a poster advertising a London Architecture poster. Another inspiration was the Bauhaus movement and their use of contrasting colours to create abstract pieces as well as Russian Constructivism, which was the main inspiration behind using buildings in the way I have. I created my poster mostly on Adobe Illustrator, this was because the text had to be curved and Illustrator is the best program to use to do this easily.

Another reason I used Illustrator was because of how each component in a shape was its own entity, by this I mean how, for example, every white line on the Globe Theater is separate, giving me full control over how the lines readjust.

In comparison to a professionals work I think my work is alright, of course, it’s not going to be as good as professionals who have had years in the industry as well as most likely a university education while this is my first college assignment, but for what it is, I personally think it’s ok, for example ‘Poster for the 1923 Bauhaus Exhibition in Weimar’  by Joost Schmidt  is a poster I have already talked about for it’s use of a clean layout, this is what I attempted to do in my work, and I have been able to keep all the words readable, as well as have a see able illustration, however, the way that Schmidt uses his layout to create an abstract piece of art is very different to how I’ve created my poster, this could simply be because of different time periods that are experiencing different art movement as well as different inspirations but the original statement stands in that I didn’t try to turn my poster into an avant garde themed creation.

However, something that is comparable is the fact that both my work and Schmidt’s work uses a three colour composition, by this I mean while Schmidt used red black and grey, my main three colours were blue, pink and yellow, my colours appearance looks a lot more cleaner than Scmidt’s, this is most likely be because Schmidt’s poster was created using lithography in 1923 while I used a digital software in 2016, meaning my colours will look more saturated as I have more options.Image result for Bauhaus joost schmidt

I also think mine is fairly similar to Schmidt’s in that they both use bold, all capital lettered fonts in their typography, while I can’t speak on behalf of Schmidt personally I can assume that the reason he used all bold font is the same as mine, he wanted to keep the text clear and readable so that viewers understood the information, just as I did.

The colour of the font I chose also helped keep the text readable as the text is the one instance of pink being used on the page. The colour itself contrasts well against the yellow and blue but still stands out against the white. By having the only pink text be the logo, title and date I can help the viewer denote how important those pieces of information are, as well as how important I believe the information to be

When creating the sketches I wanted to use a variety of materials, from coloured pen to simple pencil sketches, this is because I wanted to have a different array of materials to try and see what sort fit the theme I had had in the first place, because originally, I was going to have my poster be inspired by the Bauhaus movement, this was because the Bauhaus movement was famous for having an impact on architecture that has lasted to this day and I felt it was fitting, I personally thought the coloured pen drawings were the best in terms of getting the Bauhaus appearance, however, once I went in a different direction to Bauhaus-inspired posters I didn’t use the design, instead, I used the one above, however, it still used the coloured pens as it created a very bright and colourful look which I couldn’t get with the other types of materials.

Overall, I believe my main design came out well, I like how I created a natural golden spiral in the poster which helps the viewer see the most important information first, as well as the colours I chose for my poster, they are contrasting so that each part of the poster is vivid, but not to the point of being overbearing, I also really enjoy how the outline of the London Architecture came out, it’s the part of the poster I’m most proud of.

However, if I could go back and change somethings about my work it would be trying different types of background colours other than white, I also didn’t like how the logo looks in the final poster, if I could change it, I would move it back to being horizontal with the title.

Another thing about the poster I don’t like is the colours that the actually printed version have, particularly the yellow, which came out a warmer, more red yellow than the computer screen made it seem.Others believed that my design was quite bright and that it was easy to read as a result of the colours.

To be honest, the project took me longer than it should have, at least in terms of the writing everything up on the blog, if I was to redo this assignment, I would spend less time on creating the posters and more time on the writing tasks, I would also do the writing tasks while I was completing the practical parts of it so that the ideas on what to write were fresh in my mind.

Assignment 1: Poster Layout in Theory and Practice

To create a successful poster there are some rules that  have to be followed, these are:
Contrast, typography and composition

Contrast is one of the most important parts of a poster as it’s what brings attention to the poster and helps the poster look good, however, when contrast is used too much it can result in being overbearing to the viewer.

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For example, this poster is a good example of the worst way to use contrast because, as a result of the saturation of the two main colours red and yellow, the poster is hard to look at. The over use of red against yellow is also a bad choice for contrast because the denotation for the colour combination red and yellow is fire, which is linked to danger and is off-putting and unwelcoming to the viewer.

The typography is also important to the poster as the style of the text denotes what impact the poster wishes to give off, by this I mean that, for example, using san-serif font would give the viewer the impression that the poster was much less formal compared to if it used serif font, using san serif can also create a sense of modernism and youthfulness which would be liked more by younger audiences while using serif fonts would create an air of formality and maturity which appeals more to older audiences. Also important to typography is the spacing of the words, if the words were too close together it is near impossible to read, however if it’s too spaced out the viewer may not realize the spaced out letters spell a word.

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As seen above the posters typography uses serif font which is fairly close together but has enough room between the two words to appear as two words, this creates a formal and mature image for the poster and gives off the impression that the film the poster is advertising isn’t child friendly.

This film poster also works as a good example of contrast used correctly, black and white are complementary colours that a viewer can enjoy looking at, then there’s the contrast of the purple colour on the models lips, eyes and the small print above the heading against the black and white which stands out against both, drawing the attention of the viewer to it.

Composition is the layout of where the text, images and other elements of a poster are placed.
Composition also has a type of rules that it follows, these are:
Rule of Thirds – Using rule of thirds is when the main object is put along a vertical or horizontal line or a point of intersection. The reason why doing this appears aesthetically pleasing is because when an object is put in the intersection or lines it looks more balanced and interesting, in theory. A foreground image increases depth and stance in landscape photos
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Golden spiral/Fibonacci’s ratio – Based on  a mathematical number that has been used for decades, the eye naturally falls to the centre of the spiral which is based on the golden ratio. It looks nice because the quicker a brain can process something the nicer it looks like and an image with the golden ration are processed faster meaning the brain is sent signals that the picture looks nice faster.
Leading lines – When you use leading lines they can cause the eye to naturally follow the lines, this means that you can get the viewer to look at the most important part of an image first without too much effort, it can also be used in terms of symmetry as shown below to create balance.
Rule of Odds – Much like the rule of thirds, the eye naturally goes to the centre of something, so if you used three shapes in a picture the eye would naturally go to the centre shape, this would look a lot nicer than having just two items in the picture as the eye would be drawn to in the middle and there would be nothing.
Z-Pattern Layout
The Gutenberg Diagram
Composition in use
Image result for film poster rule of thirds
Seen above is an example of a poster following one of the rules of composition, the rule of thirds. The poster uses the rule of thirds composition type, as seen by the grid that covers the poster, you can see how the main focus is in the central square, this is probably be cause the human eye naturally falls to the centre of an image if there is nothing to guide it somewhere else, such as a guiding line or the golden spiral, you can also see how the creator composed the poster so that the main focus point is in line with the title of the film, this is probably to keep the poster balanced and, once the viewer has seen the middle of the poster, where the main focus is, the eye would fall to below it, where the title is.

Mood Board

My posters influences:
Russian Constructivism – A movement from 1913 to 1940 it was a movement created in Russia but quicjkly spread throughout Europe, it used new media often in its works.

International Swiss Style –  The International Typographic Style, more commonly referred to as Swiss Style was created around the 1950s, it was typography with its  main objectives being cleanliness, readability and objectivity.


The colour palette I will use is seen in the middle of the mood board


Assignment 1: Historical Printing and printmaking



History of Printing

One of the earliest forms of printing was called Cuneiform, it was used as a writing system in Sumer (which we know now as Iraq) The printing was done by Wedge-shaped marks being made on clay tablets by a blunt stylus cut from a reed. Then, in 2500 B. C. ink was created by the Ancient Egyptians and Chinese. It is believed that their ink was made from mixing carbon with gum, 50 years later, in 3000bc, Egyptians have created papyrus, the first form of paper which was cut into long, thin stripes and weaved around each other.


In 500 BC parchment was created, which was favoured over papyrus as writing paper and made out of processed animal skin, it was originally made in Pergamon. Then paper as we are familiar with it was invented in China, 105 AD, by the Chinese Eunuch Ts’ai Lun which he created using mulberry bark and hemp rags with water, the first iteration of paper was a big success and became used all over China as it was preferred over papyrus and parchment which was much harder to write on.


In 618–906 AD the woodblock printing was invented in China, this new creation allowed for the faster widespread of texts. It is believed that the wood block printing was inspired by the old use of bronze and stone to leave impressions in stone. However, while woodblock printing was innovative and was a big advancement in technology, it consumed a lot of time, for example, a Chinese monk attempted to print the Tripitaka (a collection of Buddhist scriptures) using wood blocks. It took him twelve years to finish printing the 1076 volumes.


In 794 AD the first paper mill was created in Baghad (in present day Iraq) after the Chinese had told them what paper making was and how to do it, however the people in Baghad used linen instead of the bark of the mulberry,


Moveable-type printing was invented between 1041 and 1048 AD by Bi Sheng, a man highly experienced with wood block printing; Moveable-type printing was a lot faster than wood block printing. However because of the thousands of characters required for written Chinese, moveable type was not as efficient for them. In fact, woodblock printing was still popular in China for many more years.


Many years later, in 1440, a German inventor named Johannes Gutenburg created a newer version of the adjustable print mould which became much more popular than it’s ancient Chinese counterpart for its comparatively advanced technology. Then, in 1455 Gutenberg’s bible was completed by Johann Fust and Peter Schoeffer, the first men to use a printers mark which is a logo serving as the printers trademark, they used Gutenberg’s adjustable print mould.


In 1465, drypoint was developed in Germany, drypoint was an engraving method where the design that someone wants to be printed is scratched into a copperplate with a sharply pointed instrument. Dry pointing was used for both writing and art, as seen by the artist Paul F. Berdanier, who used dry point engraving to do multiple pieces of art.


In 1515, etching was developed by metalsmith and artist Daniel Hopfer in Augsburg. Etching is a way of embedding into a material with a pattern, much like drypoint engraving, can be used for art as well as writing.


In 1605 the first newspaper got published in Belgium


In February 28, 1982 the company Adobe Systems, famous for their Adobe Design programs which are used by both professional businesses and students and printing began to become more digitally oriented


Types of Printmaking

Lithography was created by Alois Senefelder who first used it in a publishing firm he opened with Franze Gleißner in 1796, before lithography, most posters were made wood or metal engravings with little colour or design. Lithography is a way to create posters based on how water and oil are unable to mix, this allowed for the images on the posters to be coloured in a way it hadn’t been able to before, in modern day the process is still the same, however, with the improvement of technology we can do litho printing faster, however, it uses a lot of ink and water to create the image as well as general energy to power it.
Image result for lithography process

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Screen printing is another way to print that is still used in modern day, to screen print you force ink or metal on to a surface through a screen or sheet of fine material so as to create a picture or pattern. Screen printing is one of the easier printing techniques that can be done by anyone, with people being able to create their own screens using wood planks and a sheet of material with small holes in it to act as a siv, however, it can be quite messy,  and since the ink can be difficult to clean up it may not be cost efficient for a newcomer to screen printing.
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Digital Printing

There are two types of digital printing, Inkjet and laser printing.

Inkjet can create a printed image by propelling droplets of ink onto the sheet from one or more of the print heads inside the printer. A big benefit of inkjet printers are that they are one of, if not the, cheapest printing products available and with the advancement of technology, even cheaper inkjet printers will give a fairly good quality result. Unlike the laser printing method, Inkjet printing doesn’t need to warm up before printing.

However, while you can buy cheap printers, the amount of money that would be paid out for the ink cartridges is excessively larger than the price of the actual printer, the ink itself can also pose a problem, in that very commonly printers will be clogged with ink, causing an error with the machine.
Image result for inkjet printing process
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LaserJet printers are an example of an xerographic printer, what this means is that the image that will be printed is created by giving an electrical charge to a metal cylinder called a drum, toner particles are attracted to the current produced by the electrical charge, meaning the colour from these particles shall collect and be transferred to the paper that’s being printed on.
Six basic stages
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A benefit of LaserJet printing is that, while inkjet printing may not need to be warmed up, the LaserJet printer is still faster at printing. LaserJet printers are also higher quality on average in comparison to inkjet printers, which means that a designer would do better to get a LaserJet printer if they wanted the best possible quality printout of their work.

However, LaserJet printers are quite large, making them very difficult to have in a home environment, LaserJet printers are also the most expensive modern printer to get, and that’s without the price of toner added on top, making LaserJet printing a process that only companies or designers and such that have quite a lot of money can use.


Adolphe Mouron Cassandre  – “The Normandie”.
Image result for Adolphe Mouron Cassandre - “The Normandie”.

Above can be seen one of Cassandre’s most famous posters, “The Normandie”, this poster was made using stone lithography, the reason being because using stone allowed print makers to naturally draw and paint onto the stone to create the image.


The process that Cassandra used to create “The Normandie” was stone lithography printing. First Cassandra created a design that was put onto the template, afterwards he added colour by using airbrush and stencils, a common feature of Cassandra’s works, on to a flat surface which could be greased up so as to help separate the ink, the stone then has gum Arabic put onto it, sometimes with a very small amount of nitric acid added. The gum is put onto separate the image and the non-image areas.


Cassandre would then put a piece of paper against the stone for the ink to be transferred over to when put through as printing press, or simply rolled down with a lot of pressure, then all Cassandre would have to do is to keep adding ink and going through the process again.


Normandie was created for the purpose of advertising a French Line Transatlantic Cruise; this can be seen by the way Cassandre presents the ship in the poster. It’s the main feature, taking up the majority of the page, by doing this Cassandre causes the boat to be connoted by the viewer as grand and impressive in size, as well as how it’s a ship that people should want to get on. Normandie uses a bold use of colouring; with the sparsely used red being used to highlight sections of the ship Cassandre reinforces the emphasis on the boat because of the contrast between red and black.


It’s also worth noting how the only other instance of the colour red being used on the advertisement was on the bottom lines of text, which says something along the lines of ‘A luxury and single class liner’, this could be a clever way for Cassandre to keep his main message of advertising the French cruise line in the spotlight as, much like the highlights on the boat, Cassandre conveys the importance of this line of text by making it a stark contrast to the monochrome colouring of the rest of the text.


The main message of Normandie was to try and convince people to want to go on the ship which Cassandre was advertising, which I believe he gets across well with the use of scale of the boat to seem impressive as well as colour contrast being used to highlight certain elements of the poster, it’s interesting to note that because of the composition of the boat Cassandre has created a leading line on the boats front edge, which will probably be what a viewer’s attention is first drawn to, down to the text.


The text itself uses a mixture of fonts, while this can be affective, this can also be a bad design choice, by this I mean that the while the majority of lines flow well together, the line ‘French line’ is done in such a different text font that it is quite jarring in comparison, as this is the only instance of this font being used, however on the other hand this could be a positive as ‘French line’ is the company that commissioned Cassadre to create the advertisement poster, so by putting the company name in a different font, it makes the title stick out more and, as such, will be more likely to be noticed first out of the other text, which connotes the importance of this line of text in comparison to the rest of the poster; so, from a design perspective having a completely different font for one line while the rest of the fonts, while varying, are all sans serif fonts, which could actually be a result of Cassandre believing that the typography on a poster should be bold and capitalized, isn’t good practice, but from an advertisement stand point, which is, the main purpose for Normandie, it’s a good idea.


Another way that Cassandre showed the grand scale of the boat was having very small birds flying past, which Cassandre used to put emphasis on the fact that this boat is abnormally large, this is also done through the small French flag at the top of the boat, by using these as measuring scopes Cassandre is connoting just how big the boat is without being too blatant about it to the audience.


Cassandre also created multiple famous typefaces, these were, Bifur (1929), Acier Noir (1935) and Piegnot (1937), Cassandre only used capital letters in his typefaces as he believed it was easier to read, Cassandre is also notable for making his typography a large part of his posters, as seen here in his poster, ‘Nord Express’ 1927, where in Cassandre makes the text look like a part of the train machinery ‘Nord Express’, 1927 (Unpublished Poster featuring Cassandre’s ‘Acier Noir’ typeface)
Image result for nord express


Bauhaus is a difficult Modernist movement to talk about because it was more of a combination of movements instead of one specific movement. Bauhaus originated from a German art school named Staatliches Bauhaus, or commonly known as simply Bauhaus, the reason the Bauhaus art school was created was as a result of fears that art was becoming soulless and that art was losing its place in society as art and manufacturing were separated, the main goal of Bauhaus was to try and bring them together, Bauhaus also put emphasis on putting crafts and fine art on the same level as respect.

One poster I personally like from the Bauhaus movement is ‘Poster for the 1923 Bauhaus Exhibition in Weimar’ – Joost Schmidt, 1923, the fairly on the nose name for this poster tells us what the purpose was, it was a poster that, much like Cassandre’s, was an advertisment, except this time it was for the first Bauhaus Exhibition again, much like Cassandre, Schmidt used colour lithography to create this poster.

Schmidt’s design cleverly shows the Bauhaus-Signet in the diagonal cross of the overall design which was designed by Oskar Schlemmer, who was Schmidts teacher and one of the influences for this poster. The Bauhaus Signet was actually a required part for the advertisement, alongside information about the event, date and venue which can be clearly seen on the poster.

One thing I personally like about Schmidt’s poster is that it showcases what Bauhaus was at its core very well, such as the Bauhaus’ focus on new typography, which can be seen by how Scmidt uses a variety of different fonts, as well as the use of geometric shapes to create interesting designs.

The use of colours bring emphasis to the different pieces of information, such as how ’15.Aug’ is on a red background white ’30.Sept’ is on a grey background, this helps to take in each piece of information separately while not detaching it entirely from the poster.


I also think that the compositions attempts to keep the poster visually interesting is good as well, each shape was obviously thought out in detail over how it will look on its own and as a part of the whole poster, with the rectangular shapes not  overpowering the smoother edged, circular shapes and vice versa, none of the shapes overlap as well, which keeps the poster from looking cluttered, something that was vitally important to a poster such as this, which used this many different shapes and colours.
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Contemporary Poster – Disney’s The Jungle Book poster
Image result for disney jungle book film poster

The above poster was almost certainly created using Photoshop or Illustrator and After Effects, this can easily be told by the fact that the background looks computer generated or possibly even digitally drawn while the human boy looks much more solid and real, this poster was then printed in bulk from a modern printer, most likely LaserJet. It’s hard to explain how something looks computer generated while something else doesn’t but the best way I can explain it is that the lighting on Bagheera and the background don’t properly correlate to what Mowgli would look like if the background was actually solid.

The main reason for the creation of this poster was to advertise the film ‘The Jungle Book’ from Disney.


The layout is fairly simplistic, keeping only the two main figures in the spotlight, while the other figures are around the border, by doing this; Disney could get the viewers to look around the poster to see all the characters both in the centre and background and, in doing so, would inevitably see the title of the film. Another note on the layout is that the space between the two rock pedestals that the two main characters are standing on acts as a sort of leading line down to the title, couple this with the fact that that space is the only yellow with the surrounding area being green and it becomes a fairly obvious line created by Disney to get the viewer to look below the main image.


The contrasting colours of green against yellow looks great as a result of the contrast of pleasant looking colours and creates a good atmosphere for the film, the green against yellow contrast also helps the title be seen more easily, with the bright yellow title against the dark green leaves it stands out while not taking away from the characters, by using the green and yellow contrast, Disney creates the denotation that the jungle the film takes place in is lively and interesting.


Another point to make about colours is the fact that the one instance of a completely different colour, red, is worn by Mowgli in the poster, by Disney having him wear the only example of red on the poster the audience can connote the fact he’s the main character and can set him apart from the rest of the characters on the poster, to a lesser extent this can be said for Bagheera, who’s dark blue colouring also stands out, just not as much as Mowgli, as blue is a complimentary colour to green while red is a contrasting colour.


The use of serif font works well on this poster as the formality of the font type, Disney conveys a sense of seriousness to the film the poster is advertising which will appeal to adults, it’s also probable that the font was purposefully made to look like an updated version of the one used for the original ‘Jungle Book’ from Disney which is a good call back that can help viewers who have seen the older version identify this remake with the original.


History of Posters

The first time posters began to be more wide spread was in mid 19th century France where many posters that are now seen as fairly iconic come from, for example, the palais de glace posters by Jules Cheret which looked like this:
A Brief History of the PosterImage result for palais de glace


Jules Cheret used, and became well known, for his use of lithography for his posters, in fact, Cheret created more than 1000 posters over a 30 year career.


When the The Belle Epoque happened posters became much more popular, with exhibits being opened and magazines and dealers appeared. Then the Art Nouveau era happened and posters changed drastically from their lithography style, now they had bolder lines and its use of colour changed and became more detailed and contrasting.

However, once the art nouveau style started to die off a new era arrived The New Century and Early Modernism era, which started at the beginning of the 1900s, the new era was the result of many newer artists disliking the way art had looked before it, going for much more abstract shapes and less detail in the colour. A result of the new century and early modernism style was German Plakatstil, or poster style as it can be referred to, which was started in 1905 by Lucin Bernhard in Berlin and Ludwig Hohlwein in Munich.






Once World War 1 began posters changed again as a new meaning for posters appeared propaganda. In fact, both world wars are examples of the largest use of posters for propaganda in history, America produced about 2,500 poster designs and approximately 20 million posters in little more than 2 year. Many of the posters we’re still familiar with now a days. The posters were propaganda for different issues that were faced in the wars, from donating money, recruiting soldiers and trying to help moral for volunteer workers, to provoking anger at the enemy.


Between ww1 and ww2 there was an art movement that happened which did, as all art movements do, affect how posters looked, however, with the growth of industrialism, people didn’t care for the art nouveau style much anymore, and with people being influenced by the modern art movements Cubism, Futurism, Expressionism and Dada, the Art Deco era was created, shapes were simple and curved letterforms were replaced for sleek, angular ones that reflected the jazz age that had arrived.


After World War 2 the mid century modern movement, which lasted around from 1933 to 1965 started, the movement was helped by people becoming more interested in advertising internationally by using posters. The posters of the mid century modern movement used many typography elements and most of the time would use modern photography that is then edited instead of illustration, the posters of the 1950s to 60s used bright colours and the shapes were simple and didn’t have lines.

Once the 70s began The International Style of Typography (or the Swiss style) became increasingly more popular outside of Switzerland but this didn’t last long as in the early eighties people stopped using the the Swiss style, a teacher named Wolfgang Weingart led the rejection which brought around a modern graphic style known as Post Modern design, even though it’s not referred much to that.


That brings us to posters of modern day, modern day posters follow in the last couple of movements in that they are abstract, and with the further advancements of computer software allowing to help create posters (i.e.: Photoshop, illustrator, etc) posters have become more diverse and quicker to create then they were before.